英语从属连词用法分类详解

时间:2009-12-22 13:02:32 来源:英语学习网站

1. 引导时间状语从句的从属连词

(1) 表示“当…时候”或“每当”的时间连词。主要的 when, while, as, whenever:

He jumped up when the phone rang. 电话铃响时他吓了一跳。

We listened while the teacher read. 老师朗读时我们听着。

The phone rang just as I was leaving. 我正要离开,电话铃就响了起来。

(2) 表示“在…之前(或之后)”的时间连词。主要的有before, after:

Turn the lights off before you leave. 离开前请关灯。

He started the job soon after he left the university. 他大学毕业后就开始做这份工作。

(3) 表示“自从”或“直到”的时间连词。主要的有since, until, till:

He has lived here since he got married. 他结婚后就一直住在这儿。

Most men worked until [till] they’re 65. 大多数男人工作到65岁。

(4) 表示“一…就”的时间连词。主要的有as soon as, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant, immediately, directly, instantly, once, no sooner…than, hardly…when等:

Tell him the news as soon as you see him. 你一见到他就把这消息告诉他。

I recognized her the moment (that) I saw her. 我一看到她就认出她来了。

I want to see him the minute (that) he arrives. 他一到来我就要见他。

I went home directly I had finished work. 我一干完活就回家了。

Once he arrives, we can start. 他一来我们就可以开始。

(5) 表示“上次”、“下次”、“每次”等的时间连词。主要的有every time(每次),each time(每次),(the) next time(下次),any time(随时),(the) last time(上次),the first time(第一次):

Last time I saw him, he looked ill. 上次我见到他的时候,他好像有病。

Next time you’re in London come and visit us. 你下次来伦敦过来探望我们。

Do look me up next time you’re in London. 你下次到伦敦来,一定来找我。

Every time I call on him, he is out. 我每次去访问他,他都不在。

You can call me any time you want to. 你随时都可以给我打电话。

【注】every time, each time, any time前不用冠词,(the) next time, (the) last time中的冠词可以省略,而the first time中的冠词通常不能省略。

 

2. 引导条件状语从句的从属连词

这类连词主要有if, unless, as [so] long as, in case 等:

If anyone calls tell them I’m not at home. 要是有人打电话来,就说我不在家。

You will fail unless you work hard. 你若不努力就会失败。

As [So] long as you need me, I’ll stay. 只要你需要我,我就留下。

In case I forget, please remind me about it. 万一我忘记,请提醒我一下。

【注】在条件状语从句中,通常要用一般现在时表示将来意义,而不能直接使用将来时态。不过,有时表示条件的 if之后可能用 will,但那不是将来时态, 而是表示意愿或委婉的请求(will为情态动词):

If you will wait a moment, I’ll fetch the money. 请等一下,我就去拿钱。

3. 引导目的状语从句的从属连词

主要的有 in order that, so that, in case, for fear等:

We used the computer in order that we might save time. 我们使用计算机是为了节约时间。

Speak clearly so that they may understand you. 说清楚,以便让他们能明白你的意思。

Be quiet in case you should wake the baby. 安静些,免得把婴儿吵醒。

He is working hard for fear he should fail. 他努力工作以免会失败。

 

4. 引导结果状语从句的从属连词

主要的有so that, so…that, such…that等:

We’re all here now, so that the meeting can begin at last. 我们现在都到齐了,终于能开会了。

It’s so difficult a question that none of us can answer it. 那是一个很难的问题,我们没有一个人能回答。

He shut the window with such force that the glass broke. 他关窗户用力很大,结果玻璃震破了。

【注】so that 中的that在口语中通常可以省略。

 

5. 引导原因状语从句的从属连词

主要的有because, as, since, seeing (that), now (that), considering (that) 等:

He couldn’t got to school because he had a cold. 他因患感冒而未能去上学。

Since everybody is here, let’s begin our discussion. 大家都到了,我们就开始吧。

Seeing that it is 8 o’clock, we’ll wait no longer. 由于时间已到8点,我们将不再等了。

Now that you are here, you’d better stay. 你既然来了,最好还是留下吧。

 

6. 引导让步状语从句的从属连词

主要的有although, though, even though, even if, while, however, whatever, whoever, whenever, wherever等:

Although [Though] he is poor, he is well contented. 他虽穷却能知足常乐。

Though [Even though] it’s hard work, I enjoy it. 尽管是苦活,但我乐意干。

Even if you don’t like wine, try a glass of this. 即使你不喜欢喝酒,也尝尝这杯吧。

While we don’t agree we continue to be friends. 尽管我们意见不同,但我们还是朋友。

However you use it, it won’t break. 不管你怎么使用,它都不会破。

Whatever you say, I believe you. 无论你说什么,我都相信你。

Whoever telephones, tell them I’m out. 不管是谁打电话,都说我出去了。

Whenever you come, you are welcome. 你什么时候来,我们都欢迎。

However much he eats, he never gets fat. 无论他吃多少, 他都不发胖。

7. 引导方式状语从句的从属连词

主要的有as, like, as if, as though, the way等:

Do it as [like] he does. 像他那样做。

He behaved as if nothing had happened. 他装作若无其事的样子。

They treat me as though I were a stranger. 他们待我如陌生人。

Nobody else loves you the way(=as) I do. 没有人像我这样爱你。

 

8. 引导地点状语从句的从属连词

主要的有where, wherever, everywhere等:

There were lots of parks where I lived. 我住的地方有许多公园。

Sit wherever you like. 你想坐在那儿就坐在那儿。

Everywhere they went, they were warmly welcomed. 他们每到一个地方都受到热烈欢迎。

 

9. 引导比较状语从句的从属连词

主要的有than和as…as:

It’s easier than I thought. 这比我想像的要容易。

They are as often wrong as they are right. 他们错对各半。

 

10. 引导名词性从句的从属连词

主要的有that, if, whether:

It is clear enough what he meant. 他是什么意思很清楚。

Your greatest fault is that you are careless. 你最大的缺点是粗心大意。

Whether it will do us harm remains to be seen. 是否对我们有害还要看一看。

She didn’t say if he was still alive. 她没说他是否还活着。

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