大学英语四级快速阅读技巧

时间:2008-06-18 08:15:22 来源:英语学习网站
15分钟做完,先看小标题(现只看2-3个,多了也记不住),再通过1-7 小题的题干的名词、动词找出原句来做,

特别注意:

做题顺序,先看文章标题,直到文章主要内容,然后看第一小题,在小题部分的定位词先圈出来,在回原文找。找到第一小题后,再看第二小题。看一个题,作一个;不要把文章看完再做题,或题看完再读文章。

特别注意:比较容易定位的词是:

A. 不能用中心思想词定位,因为整篇文章都说的是它。

B. 时间、数字、地点、大写字母的单词容易定位。

C. 比较长,难的名词容易定位,好找。

D. 定位词找2-3个就行,多了也记不住。最好是位置不同的两个词。


一般判断N和NG的标准如下:

NO题: (l)信息与原文相反 (2)将原文信息张冠李戴

(3)将原文中不确定的或未经证实的内容作为正确的或客观的来表述

(4)改变原文的条件、范围、频率、可能性等

NG题: (l)无中生有 (2)以个别代替整体,即将原文所举例子的特殊现象推广为普遍现象

(3)随意比较原文中提到的两个事物 (4)将原文具体化,即题目中涉及的范围小于原文涉及的范围

(5)原文中作者或某个人物的目标、目的、愿望、誓言等内容,在题目中作为客观事实陈述


Promote Learning and Skills for Young People and Adults


This goal places the emphasis on the learning needs of young people and adults in the context of lifelong learning. It calls for fair access to learning programs that are appropriate, and mentions life skills particularly.


Why this goal?

Education is about giving people the opportunity to develop their potential, their personality and their strengths. This does not merely mean learning new knowledge, but also developing abilities to make the most of life. These are called life skills-including the inner capacities and the practical skills we need.

Many of the inner capacities-often known as psycho-social skills-cannot be taught as subjects. They are not the same as academic or technical learning. They must rather be modeled and promoted as part of learning, and in particular by teachers. These skills have to do with the way we behave-towards other people, towards ourselves, towards the challenges and problems of life. They include skills in communicating, in making decisions and solving problems, in negotiating and expressing ourselves, in thinking critically and understanding our feelings. More practical life skills are the kinds of manual skills we need for the physical tasks we face. Some would include vocational skills under the heading of life skills-the ability to lay bricks, sew clothes, catch fish or repair a motorbike. These are skills by which people may earn their livelihood and which are often available to young people leaving school. In fact, very often young people learn psycho-social skills as they learn more practical skills. Learning vocational skills can be a strategy for acquiring both practical and psycho-social skills.

We need to increase our life skills at every stage of life, so learning them may he part of early childhood education, of primary and secondary education and of adult learning groups.


Its importance in learning

Life skills can be put into the categories that the Jacques Delors report suggested; it spoke of four pillars of education, which correspond to certain kinds of life skills: Earning to know: Thinking abilities: such as problem-solving, critical thinking, decision-making, understanding consequences.

Learning to be: Personal abilities: such as managing stress and feelings, self-awareness, self-confidence.

Learning to live together Social abilities: such as communication, negotiation, teamwork

Learning to do: Manual skills: practising know-how required for work and tasks

In today's world all these skills are necessary, in order to face rapid change in society. This means that it is important to know how to go on learning as we require new skills for life and work. In addition, we need to know how to cope with the flood of information and turn it into useful knowledge. We also need to learn how to handle change in society and in our own lives.

Its nature

Life skills are both concrete and abstract-practical skills can be learned directly, as a subject. For example, a learner can take a course in laying bricks and learn that skill. Other life skills, such as self-confidence, self-esteem, and skills for relating to others or thinking critically cannot be taught in such direct ways. They should be part of any learning process, where teachers or instructors are concerned that learners should not just learn about subjects, but learn how to cope with life and make the most of their potential.

So these life skills may be learnt when learning other things. For example:

Learning literacy may have a big impact on self-esteem, on critical thinking or on communication skills;

Learning practical skills such as driving, healthcare or tailoring may increase self-confidence, teach problem- solving processes or help in understanding consequences.

Whether this is true depends on the way of teaching -what kinds of thinking, relationship-building and communication the teacher or facilitator models themselves and promotes among the learners.


Progress towards this goal

It would require measuring the individual and collective progress in making the most of learning and of life, or assessing how far human potential is being realized, or estimating how well people cope with change. It is easier to measure the development of practical skills, for instance by counting the number of students who register for vocabonal skills courses. However, this still may not tell us how effectively these skills are being used.

The psycho-social skills cannot easily be measured by tests and scores, but become visible in changed behavior. Progress in this area has often been noted by teachers on reports which they make to the parents of their pupils. The teachers experience of life, of teaching and of what can be expected from education in the broadest sense serve as a standard by which the growth and development of individuals can be assessed to some extent. This kind of assessment is individual and may never appear in international tables and charts.


Current challenges

The current challenges relate to these difficulties:

We need to recognize the importance of life skills-both practical and psycho-social-as part of education which leads to the full development of human potential and to the development of society;

The links between psycho-social skills and practical skills must be more clearly spelled out, so that educators can promote both together and find effective ways to do this;

Since life skills are taught as part of a wide range of subjects, teachers need to have training in how to put them across and how to monitor learners' growth in these areas;

In designing curricula and syllabuses for academic subjects, there must be a balance between content teaching and attention to the accompanying life skills;

A more conscious and deliberate effort to promote life skills will enable learners to become more active citizens in the life of society.

Policy options-what governments should do

Recognize and actively advocate for the transformational role of education in realizing human potential and in socio-economic development;

Ensure that curricula and syllabuses address life skills and give learners the opportunity to make real-life applications of knowledge, skills and attitudes;

Show how life skills of all kinds apply in the world of work, for example, negotiating and communication skills, as well practical skills;

Through initial and in-service teacher training, increase the use of active and participatory learning/teaching approaches;

Examine and adapt the processes and content of education so that there is a balance between academic input and life skills development; ,Make sure that education inspectors look not only for academic progress through teaching and learning, but also progress in the communication, modeling and application of life skills;

Advocate for the links between primary and (early) secondary education because learning life skills needs eight or nine years and recognize that the prospect of effective secondary education is an incentive to children, and their parents, to complete primary education successfully.


Policy options-what funding agencies should do

Support research, exchange and debate, nationally and regionally, on ways of strengthening life skills education;

Support innovative (创新的) teacher training in order to combine life skills promotion into subjects across the curriculum and as a fundamental part of what school and education are about;

Recognize the links between primary and secondary education in ensuring that children develop strong life skills;

Support, therefore, the early years of secondary education as part basic education.


What UNESCO is doing

As support to governments and in cooperation with other international agencies, UNESCO:

Works to define life skills better and clarify what it means to teach and learn them;

Assists educational policy makers and teachers to develop and use a life skills approach to education;

Advocates for the links between a life skills approach to education and broader society and human development.

做题顺序,先看文章标题,直到文章主要内容,然后看第一小题,在小题部分的定位词先圈出来,在回原文找。找到第一小题后,再看第二小题。看一个题,作一个;不要把文章看完再做题,或题看完再读文章。

1. Many of the inner capacities which cannot be taught as subjects are often known as psycho-social skills.

定位词:长单词inner capacities或者psycho-social skills

文章第1个小标题why this goal?下第二段首句。答案选Y。

2. Vocational skills are more fundamental than psycho-social skills because vocational skills determine people's livelihood.

定位词:Vocational skills或fundamental,定位词每次只需要找2-3个,多了记不住。

文章第1个小标题why this goal?下第2段最后2句。原文各个部分都说到,但是原文没作比较,选NG。

3. One can tell how effectively a vocational skill is being used by counting how many students register for the course.

定位词:effectively,vocational,register并且只能在第2小题后面找。

文章第4个小标题progress towards this goal下首段第2句、3句。与原文表达相反,选N。

4. The progress in psycho-social skills can be measured in terms of changed behaviors.

定位词:changed behaviors.并且只能在第3小题后面找。

文章第4个小标题progress towards this goal下第2段第一句。与原文表达相反,选Y。

5. One of the challenges facing the learners is to promote their life skills more consciously and deliberately.

定位词:challenges和consciously and deliberately

文章第5个小标题current challenges部分最后一段,是原文的同义互换,选Y。

6. The government will ensure that all curricula given to the learners will be related to life skills.

定位词:curricula,government

文章第6个小标题Policy options部分第二段,文章指出政府要确保生活技能,但没提到两者是否有关联。NG

7. The function of UNESCO is to lead the governments and other international agencies to promote life skills.

定位词:UNESC,有专有名词、大写字母单词为首选定位词。

文章最后一个小标题What UNESCO is doing部分的第一段,原文是support作用,不是lead作用,选Y。


第8小题可能在第7小题前,甚至文章前部分,但第9、10小题一定在第8小题后。

8. The abilities that we can make the most of life consist of .

定位词:abilities,make the most of life

文章第1个小标题why this goal?下第1段第2、3句。答案填:the inner capacities, the practical skills we need

9. The learning to do skills are also called "manual skills", which are to .

定位词:learning to do, manual skills

第二个小标题Its importance in learning部分倒数第二段。答案:practise know-how required for work and tasks

注意原文为practising,答案要改为practise,用动词,就如同2006年12月四级真题原句是look back,答案要是looking back.

10. The government must examine and adapt the processes and content of education in order to gain a balance between .

定位在第6个小标题policy options 下的第5段,答案: academic input and life skills development

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